This module provides a sectoral approach to privacy issues, through the lens of law enforcement, health, smart cities, banking, and more. Examining privacy in these contexts, with an empirical focus, the module also discusses ‘data tools’. These tools are modes through which data is collected, treated, or through which the results of data treatments are applied. These include biometrics, databases, algorithms, and drones. By the end of this module, students will have a strong grasp of the landscape of privacy-invasive and privacy-enhancing tools.



– Introduction to data tools: Metadata, The Cloud, Biometrics, Geo-location, Gamification, Algorithms, Big Data, Internet of Things, Social networks, DBs, Browsing, Drones

– Sectors:

  • Law enforcement
  • Health
  • Science and research
  • Workplace & Corporate
  • Marketing & behavioral advertising
  • Smart cities
  • Crisis management
  • Journalism
  • Banking
  • The entertainment industry


ECTS: 15



Lessig, L. (1999). Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, New York: Basic Books.

van der Ploeg, I. (2003). “Biometrics and the Body as Information: Normative Issues of the Socio-technical Coding of the Body,” in Surveillance as Social Sorting: Privacy, Risk and Digital Discrimination, edited by D. Lyon, London:Routledge, pp. 57–73.

Dahl J.Y. and Saetnan A. R (2009) ‘It all happened so slowly’ – On controlling function creep in forensic DNA databases, International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice 37 (3): 83-103.

Kitchin, R. and Dodge, M. (2011). Code/Space: Software and Everyday Life, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Trottier, D. (2012). Social Media as Surveillance: Rethinking Visibility in a Converging World. Farnham: Ashgate.